COVID-19 Literature V

literature published in 2022

Updated January 16, 2022

1 JAN 2022: Effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines against Omicron or Delta infection (medRxiv preprint)
“receipt of 2 doses of COVID-19 vaccines was not protective against Omicron. Vaccine effectiveness against Omicron was 37% (95%CI, 19-50%) ≥7 days after receiving an mRNA vaccine for the third dose.”

2 JAN 2022: Outcomes of patients with thromboembolic events following coronavirus disease 2019 AstraZeneca vaccination (Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis)

4 JAN 2022: A virus-specific monocyte inflammatory phenotype is induced by SARS-CoV-2 at the immune–epithelial interface (PNAS)
“These results suggest that the inflammatory malfunction in COVID-19 is rooted in the earliest perturbations that SARS-CoV-2 induces in epithelia.”

4 JAN 2020: The coronavirus may cause fat cells to miscommunicate, leading to diabetes (ScienceNews Article)

5 JAN 2022: Association Between Menstrual Cycle Length and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Vaccination (Obstetrics & Gynecology)
“Overall, COVID-19 vaccine was associated with a less than 1-day change in cycle length for both vaccine-dose cycles compared with prevaccine cycles (first dose 0.71 day-increase, 98.75% CI 0.47–0.94; second dose 0.91, 98.75% CI 0.63–1.19); unvaccinated individuals saw no significant change compared with three baseline cycles”

5 JAN 2022: Reported Cases of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) Aged 12–20 Years in the United States Who Received COVID-19 Vaccine, December 2020 through August 2021 (medRxiv preprint)
“In our case series, we describe a small number of persons with MIS-C who had received ≥1 COVID-19 vaccine dose before illness onset. Continued reporting of potential cases and surveillance for MIS-C illnesses after COVID-19 vaccination is warranted.”

5 JAN 2022: Dry heat sterilization as a method to recycle N95 respirator masks: The importance of fit (PLOS One)

6 JAN 2022: Protection afforded by prior infection against SARS-CoV-2 reinfection with the Omicron variant (medRxiv preprint)
“Protection afforded by prior infection in preventing symptomatic reinfection with Alpha, Beta, or Delta is robust, at about 90%. While such protection against reinfection with Omicron is lower, it is still considerable at nearly 60%. Prior-infection protection against hospitalization or death at reinfection appears robust, regardless of variant.”

10 JAN 2022: Mild respiratory SARS-CoV-2 infection can cause multi-lineage cellular dysregulation and myelin loss in the brain (medRxiv preprint)
“Using a mouse model of mild respiratory SARS-CoV-2 infection induced by intranasal SARS-CoV-2 delivery, we found white matter-selective microglial reactivity, a pattern observed in CRCI. Human brain tissue from 9 individuals with COVID-19 or SARS-CoV-2 infection exhibits the same pattern of prominent white matter-selective microglial reactivity. In mice, pro-inflammatory CSF cytokines/chemokines were elevated for at least 7-weeks post-infection; among the chemokines demonstrating persistent elevation is CCL11, which is associated with impairments in neurogenesis and cognitive function. Humans experiencing long-COVID with cognitive symptoms (48 subjects) similarly demonstrate elevated CCL11 levels compared to those with long-COVID who lack cognitive symptoms (15 subjects). Impaired hippocampal neurogenesis, decreased oligodendrocytes and myelin loss in subcortical white matter were evident at 1 week, and persisted until at least 7 weeks, following mild respiratory SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice.” 
Twitter Thread from one of the authors

10 JAN 2020: Direct Comparison of SARS Co-V-2 Nasal RT- PCR and Rapid Antigen Test (BinaxNOW(TM)) at a Community Testing Site During an Omicron Surge (medRxiv preprint)

10 JAN 2022: Anti-PEG antibodies boosted in humans by SARS-CoV-2 lipid nanoparticle mRNA vaccine (medRxiv preprint)
“A rise in PEG antibodies following vaccination was associated with an increase in the association of PEG-based nanoparticles to blood immune cells ex vivo. We conclude that low level PEG-specific antibodies can be modestly boosted by a lipid nanoparticle mRNA-vaccine and that PEG-specific antibodies are associated with higher reactogenicity. The longer-term clinical impact of the increase in PEG-specific antibodies induced by lipid nanoparticle mRNA-vaccines should be monitored.”

10 JAN 2022: Cannabinoids Block Cellular Entry of SARS-CoV-2 and the Emerging Variants (J Nat Prod)
“In follow-up virus neutralization assays, cannabigerolic acid and cannabidiolic acid prevented infection of human epithelial cells by a pseudovirus expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and prevented entry of live SARS-CoV-2 into cells. Importantly, cannabigerolic acid and cannabidiolic acid were equally effective against the SARS-CoV-2 alpha variant B.1.1.7 and the beta variant B.1.351. Orally bioavailable and with a long history of safe human use, these cannabinoids, isolated or in hemp extracts, have the potential to prevent as well as treat infection by SARS-CoV-2.”

11 JAN 2022: A single-cell atlas reveals shared and distinct immune responses and metabolism during SARS-CoV-2 and HIV-1 infections (bioRxiv preprint)
While immune cells in both cohorts show shared inflammation and disrupted mitochondrial function, COVID-19 patients exhibit stronger humoral immunity, broader IFN-I signaling, elevated Rho GTPase and mTOR pathway activities, and downregulated mitophagy.” 

12 JAN 2022: SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant Neutralization in Serum from Vaccinated and Convalescent Persons (NEJM Correspondence)

13 JAN 2022: Immunological dysfunction persists for 8 months following initial mild-to-moderate SARS-CoV-2 infection (Nature Immunology Letter)
“Patients with LC had highly activated innate immune cells, lacked naive T and B cells and showed elevated expression of type I IFN (IFN-β) and type III IFN (IFN-λ1) that remained persistently high at 8 months after infection. … Combinations of the inflammatory mediators IFN-β, PTX3, IFN-γ, IFN-λ2/3 and IL-6 associated with LC with 78.5–81.6% accuracy.” 

13 JAN 2022: Comparison of serum neurodegenerative biomarkers among hospitalized COVID-19 patients versus non-COVID subjects with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, or Alzheimer’s dementia (The Journal of Alzheimers)
“Neurodegenerative biomarkers were elevated to levels observed in AD dementia and associated with encephalopathy and worse outcomes among hospitalized COVID-19 patients.”